Propellant Additives


The stability of Nitrocellulose (NC) and Nitroglycerine is inherently poor. Degradation proceeds by two reactions:

In the first degradation reaction, NC loses Nitrogen Oxides. This reaction is an intrinsic tendency of the NC molecule.

In the second reaction, the newly-formed nitrogen oxides from the first reaction 'attack' and degrade the nitrocellulose molecule.


CAS NUMBER FORMULA NAME FUNCTION
STABILIZERS
119-75-5 C6H5NHC6H4NO2 2-NDPA Nitrodiphenylamine functions by binding nitrocellulose degradation products (e.g. NO, NO2, and nitric acid), preventing these degradation products from accelerating further degradation. The amount of the stabilizer depletes with time; remaining content of less than 0.5% (with initial 2% content) requires increased surveillance of the munition, with less than 0.2% warranting immediate disposal, as the depletion of the stabilizer may lead to autoignition of the propellant
122-39-4 C12H11N DPA Diphenylamine. Used in single-base propellants. Since it is incompatible with Nitroglycerin, it cannot be used in double-base and triple-base propellant compositions.
611-92-7 C15H16N2O MC Methyl centralite (aka Methyl Diphenylurea) Stabilizer to increase the shelf life of the propellants by slowing the rate at which NC and NG decompose.
121-14-2 C7H6N2O4 DNT 2, 4-Dinitrotoluene, a precursor to TNT, deterrent to slow the burn rate. Used as a stabilizer in single-base propellants. Also used as a ballistic modifier (homogenizer) for single-base propellants. Due to REACH, this chemical is being phased out for less cancer causing chemicals.
13114-72-2 C14H14N2O AKARDITE II N-Methyl-N’,N’-diphenylurea
ADDITIVES
7757-79-1 KN03 Potassium Nitrate (Niter) Muzzle flash reducer
7778-80-5 K2SO4 Potassium Sulfate Muzzle flash reducer
102-76-1 C9H14O6 Triacetin (Glyceryl Triacetate) Non-toxic plasticizer
12070-14-3 ZrC Zirconium Carbide Combustion instability suppressant
55-63-0 C3H5N3O9 Nitroglycerin (NG) Plasticizer to soften propellant and reduce hygroscopicity
85-98-3 C17H20N2O Ethyl centralite (EC) Plasticizer to soften propellant and reduce hygroscopicity, Burn Rate Modifier (up to 8%)
84-74-2 C16H22O4 Dibutyl phthalate (DbPHTH) Plasticizer to soften propellant and reduce hygroscopicity. Burn rate deterent
84-66-2 C12H14O4 Diethyl phthalate (DEP) Plasticizer
117-81-7 C24H38O4 Dioctyl phthalate (DoPHTH)
1333-86-4 C Carbon black Opacifier to reduce secondary flash
611-92-7 C15H16N2O Methyl Centralite (aka Methyl Diphenylurea) Burn rate modifier.
106-19-4 C12H22O4 Di-Normal Propyl Adipate (DNPA) Plasticizer
7782-42-5 C Graphite Opacifier, Lubricant
471-46-5 C2O2N2H4 Oxamide Coolant
68411-07-4 C14H12CuO8 Copper Beta Resorcylate, Monobasic Ballistics modifier
7440-69-9 Bi Bismuth Copper fouling reducer
7440-31-5 Sn Tin Copper fouling reducer
MODIFIERS
68411-07-4 Varies Lead Copper Complex Ballistics Modifier - Mixure of Lead, copper, Resorcylic Acid, Salicylic Acid, Acetone Solubles
62320-94-9 C7H6CuO4 Copper Monobasic Salicylate Ballistics Modifier
301-08-6 C16H30O4Pb Lead 2-Ethyl Hexoate (Lead Octoate) Ballistics Modifier
20936-32-7; 41453-50-3 C14H10O8Pb Lead Beta Resorcylate Ballistics Modifier
15748-73-9 C14H10O6Pb Lead Salicylate Ballistics Modifier
7428-48-0 C17H35COO2Pb Lead Stearate Ballistics Modifier